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Optimal two-qubit circuits for universal fault-tolerant quantum computation

TitleOptimal two-qubit circuits for universal fault-tolerant quantum computation
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2021
AuthorsA. N. Glaudell, N. J. Ross, and J. M. Taylor
Journalnpj Quantum Inform.
Date PublishedJUN 22
Type of ArticleArticle

We study two-qubit circuits over the Clifford+CS gate set, which consists of the Clifford gates together with the controlled-phase gate CS = diag(1, 1, 1, i). The Clifford+CS gate set is universal for quantum computation and its elements can be implemented fault-tolerantly in most error-correcting schemes through magic state distillation. Since non-Clifford gates are typically more expensive to perform in a fault-tolerant manner, it is often desirable to construct circuits that use few CS gates. In the present paper, we introduce an efficient and optimal synthesis algorithm for two-qubit Clifford+CS operators. Our algorithm inputs a Clifford+CS operator U and outputs a Clifford+CS circuit for U, which uses the least possible number of CS gates. Because the algorithm is deterministic, the circuit it associates to a Clifford+CS operator can be viewed as a normal form for that operator. We give an explicit description of these normal forms and use this description to derive a worst-case lower bound of 5log(2)(1/epsilon)+O(1) on the number of CS gates required to epsilon-approximate elements of SU(4). Our work leverages a wide variety of mathematical tools that may find further applications in the study of fault-tolerant quantum circuits.