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Efficient photoinduced second-harmonic generation in silicon nitride photonics

TitleEfficient photoinduced second-harmonic generation in silicon nitride photonics
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2021
AuthorsX. Lu, G. Moille, A. Rao, D. A. Westly, and K. Srinivasan
JournalNat. Photonics
Date Publishedfeb

Silicon photonics lacks a second-order nonlinear optical (chi((2))) response in general, because the typical constituent materials are centrosymmetric and lack inversion symmetry, which prohibits chi((2)) nonlinear processes such as second-harmonic generation (SHG). Here, we realize high SHG efficiency in silicon photonics by combining a photoinduced effective chi((2)) nonlinearity with resonant enhancement and perfect phase matching. We show a conversion efficiency of (2,500 +/- 100)% W-1 that is two to four orders of magnitude larger than previous field-induced SHG works. In particular, our devices realize milliwatt-level SHG output powers with up to (22 +/- 1)% power conversion efficiency. This demonstration is a breakthrough in realizing efficient chi((2)) processes in silicon photonics, and paves the way for further integration of self-referenced frequency combs and optical frequency references.